Affirmative action essay pros and cons

But as long as you have this paradigm where people seem to be using race and gender as a means of making hiring decisions, as long as they keep uttering this mindless blather about ‘we’ve got to achieve diversity,’ it kind of taints the whole process. A Short Discussion of Affirmative Action Pros and Cons. But we don’t even look at that. Affirmative action leads to reverse discrimination. Fortunately, there was no affirmative action at the turn of the 20th century to give members of ‘beaten races’ a leg up in the competition for education and jobs. The unwillingness of corporate leaders to choose candidates outside of their demographic ranks is known as a hire-like-me bias. Given the dearth of black and Latino Ph. Is there a clear understanding of affirmative action roles/goals. Affirmative action helps ensure equal access to opportunities and brings our nation closer to the ideal of giving everyone a fair chance.

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A second argument against affirmative action is that by awarding positions based solely on demographic preferences, the practice minimizes individual achievements and qualifications. For instance, some countries have adopted quotas for women, people with disabilities or from different ethnic backgrounds. Pros and Cons of Affirmative Action Affirmative action is defined as policies that seek out, encourage, and sometimes give preferential treatment to employees in groups protected by Title VII. Well affirmative action is, in plain text, the consideration of your class, race, gender, color, ethnicity, national origin, and disability when deciding who gets a certain job or admission into a school. Affirmative action policies have proven a good way to balance structuctural disparieties in many societies. Tired of the Los Angeles traffic. 17, 2005): “Several studies have documented important gains in racial and gender equality as a direct result of affirmative action. If we really wanted to help black people — let’s just take black people for an example — we would not be putting so much emphasis on getting them into Berkeley as we would giving them the equivalent money to go out and buy their own cabs, or get the tools to become an electrician or a plumber, or the money to take a vocational course.

The issue of affirmative action continues to be a hotly debated issue in the college selection process and higher education. In other words, it is policy that was established to hopefully eliminate racial preference and equalize the United States. Personal Credibility: I myself am a licensed motorcyclist with 3 years of. It helped to correct a history of racial discrimination propagated by whites, but it’s a new day in America. Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper Copyright © 2000-2016 123HelpMe. This consists of preferential access to education, employment, health care, or social welfare. If we really wanted to help black people — let’s just take black people for an example — we would not be putting so much emphasis on getting them into Berkeley as we would giving them the equivalent money to go out and buy their own cabs, or get the tools to become an electrician or a plumber, or the money to take a vocational course. The unwillingness of corporate leaders to choose candidates outside of their demographic ranks is known as a hire-like-me bias.

PRO (yes) CON (no) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) stated the following in its Mar. Debates have been roaring in the social and political sphere of the United States on the contentious issue of affirmative action. Affirmative action involves showing a preference for selecting and/or promoting members of a demographic or minority group with a history of discrimination. I think that when you apply different standards to people, that’s discriminatory, no matter what you want to call it. It is the practice of giving preference to racial minorities or women when hiring employees, giving awards or deciding whom to admit. 19, 2009 – National Organization for Women (NOW)�
John A. This paper will discuss the purpose behind affirmative action, as well as, its various strengths and weaknesses. Can it contribute to more cohesive and inclusive societies. It is time for liberal black leaders to stop hiding behind racism and admit that our priorities as a community have become our greatest hurdle to achieving long-term success.

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Affirmative action programs – including targeted outreach and recruitment efforts, the use of non-traditional criteria for hiring and admissions, after-school and mentorship programs, and training and apprenticeship opportunities – are tailored to fit specific instances where race and gender must be taken into account in order to provide fair and equal access to minorities and women. The main issue that affirmative action was to address is the issue of discrimination among minorities. Opportunities for women and people of color have expanded, and many believe that the unequal conditions that once justified affirmative action no longer exist. Affirmative action helps the children and the grandchildren of Jesse Jackson, John Conyers and Al Sharpton who have the money for the SAT prep courses, private schools and the clout to call the deans of admission should something go awry. This discrimination continued to take place regardless of the civil laws and constitutional promises to prevent it. Affirmative Action can be seen throughout United States History as a leading fighter for equal opportunity. The concept behind affirmative action is prevalent in most democratic countries. The fight against discrimination has been a long lasting one that started with the case of Plessy vs. Despite the enormous gains made by the civil rights and women’s rights movements, women and people of color still face unfair obstacles in business and education. What are the pros/cons of these programs. The nature of policy and terminology used vary from country to country. In weighing the pros and cons of affirmative action. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. White men hold 95% to 97% of the high-level corporate jobs. It is time we do away with preferences and recognize people, as Martin Luther King urged us, by the content of their character. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to be admitted to the university or someone to be hired for a job, and to have one standard for someone who is black and another standard for someone who is white. Both Presidents Nixon and Carter issued their own executive affirmative action orders, which built upon Kennedy’s original guidelines and provided additional opportunities and protection for women. There are those who feel that AA has exceeded its usefulness, and.

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Black people continue to have twice the unemployment rate of White people, twice the rate of infant mortality, and just over half the proportion of people who attend four years or more of college. While Obama’s election qualifies as a down payment on equality, much more remains to be done. They believe that affirmative action is needed to counteract these negative effects (Timmons, 2009). Second, proponents of affirmative action argue its role in overcoming deeply ingrained corporate biases.   More than one million students will not graduate from high school this year, and a disproportionate number of them will be African-American, Latino, or Native American. Affirmative action is a way to help compensate for the. This is the total cost – there are NO other charges. “Rationality can go through the window. Lastly, qualified candidates may feel they’re victims of employment quotas and historical advantages, or reverse discrimination, which gives members of the majority a taste of the minority experience. The fight against discrimination has been a long lasting one that started with the case of Plessy vs. No one knew precisely when the tipping point would be reached, O’Connor wrote, but ‘the court expects that 25 years from now the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary. Ever since many countries such as Brazil, Canada, India, Malay, and South Africa, have adopted policies against discrimination in employment or to facilitate access to certain education institutions. Let’s take a look at some of the arguments both for and against affirmative action. Affirmative action leads to reverse discrimination. Affirmative action programs – including targeted outreach and recruitment efforts, the use of non-traditional criteria for hiring and admissions, after-school and mentorship programs, and training and apprenticeship opportunities – are tailored to fit specific instances where race and gender must be taken into account in order to provide fair and equal access to minorities and women. But they do no favors for minority groups as a whole. Many students live very segregated lives up until the time they start college.

Kennedy when he wrote the Executive Order 10925 in which he included a provision according to which public contractors should “take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin”. Affirmative action refers to the policies and laws that attempt to redress a situation of discrimination and promote equal opportunity. Individuals who are pro affirmative action state that minorities may come from neighborhoods that are high in crime, violence, and drugs. While some minority students are just as, if not more qualified than the majority of students, it is quite possible that a minority student will be accepted into a school in which they will not be able to succeed to the best of their capabilities. However, opponents argue that gender has nothing to do with how well someone can perform as a dean, professor, or provost. Black and Hispanic Americans would rise and overcome as well if only they could be liberated from the condescending mind-set that thinks it’s a compliment to tell a group of college seniors that they show great promise — for minorities. It has been controversial because it has been said to be a form of reverse discrimination. In weighing the pros and cons of affirmative action, we must also answer the question ‘What constitutes a history of discrimination.   The famous Bakke case in 1978 showed the limitations of this approach to fighting inequality. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. Faiths and Values – Paper #1 March 4, 2010 Affirmative action was introduced in 1965 as a method of addressing the discrimination of minorities that continued to happen in the United States. Too many blacks do remain oppressed, but not by white Americans. For example, some universities may hire more women because, as of fall 2009, very few women had advanced to the top levels of academia. Diversity is desirable and won’t always occur if left to chance, meaning, part of the education process is learning to interact with other races and nationalities. And that’s with affirmative action programs in place. He was once a recipient of affirmative action, and he feels the frustration that people think he is a member of the court just because he’s black.

Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. Com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that’s right for you. “It includes everything from enhanced recruitment of minorities to retention policies that encourage minority success in school and employment. Popular Essays Excellent Essays Free Essays A-F Free Essays G-L Free Essays M-Q Free Essays R-Z Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate a Paper Copyright © 2000-2016 123HelpMe. Imagine how low figures would be without affirmative action. ) and the impact on employment law (what documents back up affirmative action. Once enacted, affirmative actions are tough to remove. (1998) International Perspectives on Affirmative Action in the 1990s Educational Researcher, Vol. These groups can include those based on ethnicity, gender, or race. Com Affirmative Action Pros and Cons Affirmative Action and Diversity Project. Affirmative Action purports to be a method for achieving equal employment opportunity for minorities normally discriminated against in hiring based on race, ethnicity, gender, or other exclusionary criteria (Outtz 1). “My sense is that it does a good job in promoting diverse student bodies and work forces and providing equal opportunity for at least some minorities,” said Fliter.

“Affirmative Action levels the playing field so people of color and all women have the chance to compete in education and in business.   Affirmative action— which is just one of many effective tools for expanding opportunity— remains essential for the full inclusion of all of those who historically have been and continue to be structurally relegated to the margins of society, and who are increasingly left further behind in the race to achieve the American Dream.   Congress and the Executive Branch soon followed by adopting a panoply of laws and regulations authorizing, either directly or by judicial or administrative interpretation, ‘race-conscious’ strategies to promote minority opportunity in jobs, education, and governmental contracting. Tummala said it is the primary legal tool to promote minorities who have been historically discriminated against, and there is a lot of evidence that minorities have been brought into the mainstream and accepted. The Pros and Cons of Drones. Rather, it is by blacks who relish a perverse sub-culture of low standards and perpetual victimization. Affirmative action arose out of a desire to bring minority groups into institutions and professions that had traditionally been dominated by white males. In fact, without affirmative action the percentage of Black students at many selective schools would drop to only 2% of the student body. No longer do white racists tell black children books are for white people. Affirmative Action is defined as positive steps to enhance the diversity of some group, often to remedy the cumulative effect of subtle as well as gross expression of. 15, 2004 – “Affirmative Action Revisited: A Legal History and Prospectus” (315KB) �
Congressional Research Service�
Does the US Need Affirmative Action. Shuford, JD�
Barack Obama, JD, 44th President of the United States, provided the following statement on affirmative action to the NAACP “2008 Voter Action Center,”(accessed Nov. An astonishing 70% of schools are not in compliance with Title IX, the federal equal education opportunity law. The purpose of this paper is to bring to light all the issues, and then make an educated statement of whether affirmative action is a worthwhile activity or if there is a better solution. Some writers have criticized affirmative action as a superficial solution that does not address deeper societal problems by redistributing wealth and developing true educational equality. For instance, some countries have adopted quotas for women, people with disabilities or from different ethnic backgrounds. Affirmative action programs – including targeted outreach and recruitment efforts, the use of non-traditional criteria for hiring and admissions, after-school and mentorship programs, and training and apprenticeship opportunities – are tailored to fit specific instances where race and gender must be taken into account in order to provide fair and equal access to minorities and women.

PRO (yes) CON (no) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) stated the following in its Mar. The policies behind affirmative action encourage all deprived students to enter an advanced educational system. Shuford, JD, Senior Staff Attorney at the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation Racial Justice Program, stated the following in his May 21, 2009 article “Why Affirmative Action Remains Essential in the Age of Obama,” published in the Campbell Law Review: “[W]hether in the arenas of housing, employment, education, wealth, health care, or the justice system, African- Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans continue to lag way behind others. In fact, without affirmative action the percentage of Black students at many selective schools would drop to only 2% of the student body. What community would not rather have Harvard-educated blacks and Hispanics than high-scho. “People supposed the program would self-destruct as everyone would become equal. How have they benefited or hurt the . Many white students also live in poverty but tend to be disregarded simply based on the fact that they are not from a minority race. If we really wanted to help black people — let’s just take black people for an example — we would not be putting so much emphasis on getting them into Berkeley as we would giving them the equivalent money to go out and buy their own cabs, or get the tools to become an electrician or a plumber, or the money to take a vocational course. The research record suggests, unequivocally, that it does.

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No one knew precisely when the tipping point would be reached, O’Connor wrote, but ‘the court expects that 25 years from now the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary. ), the impact on women (how have their lives changed. Despite the enormous gains made by the civil rights and women’s rights movements, women and people of color still face unfair obstacles in business and education. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. The constitution says we must treat all people equally, but affirmative action treats some people unequally, actually more equally. Affirmative action refers to the policies and laws that attempt to redress a situation of discrimination and promote equal opportunity. Yet affirmative action was never proposed as a cure-all solution to inequality. Those who advocate affirmative action generally believe it is a means to. The Pros and Cons of Affirmative Action 1 The Pros and Cons of Affirmative Action. Affirmative action was established to ensure that minorities have the same opportunities and options in college admission. ’s dream of a truly equal society. A Short Discussion of Affirmative Action Pros and Cons. Вбудоване відео · This lesson has been designed to provide you with an overview of affirmative action in. Affirmative Action is defined as positive steps to enhance the diversity of some group, often to remedy the cumulative effect of subtle as well as gross expression of prejudice.

Rather, it was intended only to redress discrimination in hiring and academic admissions

Existing laws help to prevent outright discrimination on the basis of race and gender, but they alone are not enough to create equal opportunities for every American. White men hold 95% to 97% of the high-level corporate jobs. (1983) Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Is It Necessary. These quotas are a way to ensure that people from certain socio-demographic groups, which have traditionally suffered discrimination, have access to schools, jobs, and / or participate in political life. It was also initiated in the work place to promote fairness for minorities in job placement, salary increase, and advancement of their careers (Brunner, 2001). They believe that the discrimination these minorities have faced have placed a psychological toll on them and their descendants. If I proposed that, they’d think I was a kook, because we’re so hung up on the notion that you either go to college or life’s a failure. “This argument, however, was not accepted by the courts. In assessing the value of affirmative action, the central question is merely this: In the absence of sweeping societal reforms — unlikely to take place any time soon — does affirmative action help counteract the continuing injustice caused by discrimination. What are the main challenges in the implementation of these policies and laws. It is time we do away with preferences and recognize people, as Martin Luther King urged us, by the content of their character. Preferences stigmatize them as less able than other Americans to stand on their own two feet. Affirmative Action programs merely acknowledge that hundreds of years of discrimination cannot be erased in a few decades and still hold women and people of color back. Personal Credibility: I myself am a licensed motorcyclist with 3 years of. In a country that claims to offer equal opportunities to all, the Affirmative Action initiative is based on a highly desirable effort to make wrongs right and remove unfair barriers and boundaries that have kept minorities in an inferior position. (site text book) This is usually done through educational or economical benefits.

Let’s take a look at some of the arguments both for and against affirmative action. Ferguson, which ended in the desegregation of all. Third, proponents of affirmative action recognize that some demographic groups face a systematic barrier, which means they lack both the means and opportunities to enter and compete in particular fields. Affirmative action lowers standards of accountability needed to push students or employees to . In assessing the value of affirmative action, the central question is merely this: In the absence of sweeping societal reforms — unlikely to take place any time soon — does affirmative action help counteract the continuing injustice caused by discrimination. Teaser: want to decrease the money you are spending on gas by at least 500%. We support affirmative action and other race- and gender-conscious policies as vital . The primary argument against affirmative action is that it requires positions be awarded on a purely demographic basis, which may introduce an artificial bias, such as sexism.

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(1983) Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Is It Necessary. They believe that these individuals already start out at a disadvantage when applying to jobs or schools because of their race or gender. ‘Affirmative action’ programs that leap-frog less-qualified minorities over more-qualified non-minorities sweep those systemic problems under the carpet. Affirmative Action laws swept through our nation and changed a wide variety of things, including laws. Affirmative action is a way to help compensate for the. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. Some writers have criticized affirmative action as a superficial solution that does not address deeper societal problems by redistributing wealth and developing true educational equality. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to be admitted to the university or someone to be hired for a job, and to have one standard for someone who is black and another standard for someone who is white. “Affirmative action involves much more than minority set-asides,” said Fliter, pictured below. You may view this document now for only . The primary argument in support of affirmative action is its potential to increase diversity in the workforce while reducing discrimination against certain demographic groups or minorities. Pros and cons of affirmative action. What community would not rather have Harvard-educated blacks and Hispanics than high-scho. “Some people argue that you shouldn’t extend affirmative action to an entire class of people. It has been controversial because it has been said to be a form of reverse discrimination. At the federal level, the roots of affirmative action can be found in an executive order issued by President John F. Read Affirmative Action: Pros and Cons free essay and over 84,000 other research documents.

Existing laws help to prevent outright discrimination on the basis of race and gender, but they alone are not enough to create equal opportunities for every American. Legally, such preference may be acted upon only when candidates are comparable in quality. The students from the ethnic minority backgrounds require a helping hand so that they can enjoy the type of privileges that are typically ignored by other races. Students starting at a disadvantage need a boost, minority students start out at a disadvantage in their college or job application process. In other words, it is policy that was established to hopefully eliminate racial preference and equalize the United States. Affirmative Action only opens doors, women and people of color have to walk through those doors by themselves. Org: “We have come a long way since the Civil Rights Movement, and many Americans feel that the time for affirmative action is over. Is  affirmative action overall positive or does it create a sort of reverse discrimination.

No longer do white racists tell black children books are for white people. The concept of “affirmative action” was coined in the United States by J. I think that when you apply different standards to people, that’s discriminatory, no matter what you want to call it. I have a way to get you to your destination faster and look cool while you do it. The unwillingness of corporate leaders to choose candidates outside of their demographic ranks is known as a hire-like-me bias. Given the dearth of black and Latino Ph. ”
May 21, 2009 – Reginald T. Such barriers can only be eliminated through affirmative action, according to its proponents.

(1998) International Perspectives on Affirmative Action in the 1990s Educational Researcher, Vol

The Pros & Cons of College Entrance Essays. Minorities tend to receive the stereotype that they are poor and are all from lower class homes. In addition to this idea, individuals for the concept of affirmative action believe that disadvantaged students, such as the minorities, need an extra boost. Legally, such preference may be acted upon only when candidates are comparable in quality. “Rationality can go through the window. “Affirmative action is difficult because it stirs up a lot of emotions,” said Tummala, pictured at left, a political science professor and director of the graduate program in public administration. There are those who feel that AA has exceeded its usefulness, and. It is the practice of giving preference to racial minorities or women when hiring employees, giving awards or deciding whom to admit. Therefore, this aims to increase ethnic and other types of diversity within the social sphere of the community.

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Those who advocate affirmative action generally believe it is a means to. The primary argument against affirmative action is that it requires positions be awarded on a purely demographic basis, which may introduce an artificial bias, such as sexism. Black people continue to have twice the unemployment rate of White people, twice the rate of infant mortality, and just over half the proportion of people who attend four years or more of college. This lesson has been designed to provide you with an overview of affirmative action in the workplace, including its pros and cons. (1978) The Effectiveness of Affirmative Action for Women The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. It is time for liberal black leaders to stop hiding behind racism and admit that our priorities as a community have become our greatest hurdle to achieving long-term success. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. What are the pros/cons of these. Affirmative Action only opens doors, women and people of color have to walk through those doors by themselves. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to be admitted to the university or someone to be hired for a job, and to have one standard for someone who is black and another standard for someone who is white. General Reference (not clearly pro or con) The Congressional Research Service (CRS) published a report on Dec. But when it gets to the point where you are making a selection for someone to be admitted to the university or someone to be hired for a job, and to have one standard for someone who is black and another standard for someone who is white. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action.

Proponents of affirmative action plans argue that historically speaking, some fields may not be open to members of certain demographic or minority groups without some extra-legal encouragement. Despite the progress that has been made, the playing field is far from level. As a way of redressing past inequalities, Affirmative Action sometimes uses preferential selection to ensure that members of the affected minorities are guaranteed partiality over non-minority applicants. Students starting at a disadvantage need a boost, minority students start out at a disadvantage in their college or job application process. Despite the enormous gains made by the civil rights and women’s rights movements, women and people of color still face unfair obstacles in business and education. We shouldn’t ignore that race continues to matter: To suggest that our racial attitudes play no part in the socio-economic disparities that we often observe turns a blind eye to both our history and our experience – and relieves us of the responsibility to make things right. Third, proponents of affirmative action recognize that some demographic groups face a systematic barrier, which means they lack both the means and opportunities to enter and compete in particular fields. An essay or paper on Affirmative Action Pros & Cons. In the 1990s, President Bill Clinton advocated a ‘mend it, don’t end it’ policy. It first appeared after the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s as an attempt to accompany the new legal equality gained for minorities with social and economic equality. Com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that’s right for you.

Rather, it is by blacks who relish a perverse sub-culture of low standards and perpetual victimization. 16, 2009 – Barack Obama, JD�
Scott Plous, PhD, Professor of Psychology at Wesleyan University, wrote in his article “Ten Myths About Affirmative Action,” posted on his website (accessed Aug. Lastly, a discussion of affirmative action on an international scale, and what international documents have to say about the topic. Legally, such preference may be acted upon only when candidates are comparable in quality. “This is something that bothers Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas. Proponents argue that if affirmative action helps minorities enter or rise in a field at a greater frequency, it may also increase the number of people who believe the field is open to them. In your experience, do they work. They believe that these individuals already start out at a disadvantage when applying to jobs or schools because of their race or gender.   African-American women, moreover, earn only sixty-three cents per hour and Hispanic women only fiftytwo cents per hour for every dollar a white man earns for similar employment. Black and Hispanic Americans would rise and overcome as well if only they could be liberated from the condescending mind-set that thinks it’s a compliment to tell a group of college seniors that they show great promise — for minorities. However, individuals against affirmative action which is the viewpoint I tend to side with, believe that affirmative action actually leads to reverse discrimination.

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